Technology in Education: Student Engagement Through iPods

I love talking with people of a certain age who have never taught in a classroom. The conversation generally starts with a line something like this: “You teach high school? I don’t know how you do it!” Once that fact has been established, my conversation mate generally meanders through all of the ills that have befallen our public schools in the past decade, me murmuring my own opinions about my profession from time to time (which are generally countered with a “Well, back in my day… ” dismissal). We come to an end of our chat with my new acquaintance sighing and then summing up the vast problems of adolescents today by saying something along the lines of “Kids just aren’t the same these days.”

While I smile politely through most of the conversation, secretly (or not so secretly) disagreeing with many statements, I do tend to agree with that final statement: kids just AREN’T the same these days. It is almost dizzying to think of how much our world has changed in just the past decade (use the size of a cell phone as a measuring stick if necessary). How could we expect our youths to stay the same? Theirs is a world of texting, tweeting, Googling, and Facebooking, and none of these things were common knowledge (much less common verbs!) when I was in high school, even though that was only a short ten years ago. Instead of bemoaning that the students of today aren’t responding to the standard method of delivering instruction, we should meet them on their own playing field, integrating technology into our everyday practice. With this thought in mind, I structured my classroom around the use of iPods, and I quickly learned that dedicated educators have the opportunity of harnessing so much educational potential through one tiny device.

I became the shepardess of thirty iPod Touches as a sort of fluke; I was a young English teacher, and my school district had just received a grant to place these devices in English, Math, and Science classes that were preparing for our state’s standardized tests. The cart resembled R2-D2 from Star Wars, and it had a slot for each numbered iPod that came complete with a cord that connected it to the cart itself; this allowed for mass charging and syncing of the iPods. Inside the cart, I found that I was also furnished with a Macbook, a digital presenter, and a wireless hotspot.

Instead of the excitement I’m sure I was meant to feel (oh the entitlement of being one of the first teachers in the district to be part of this new wave in education!), I was completely freaked out. Nothing in my limited teaching experience thus far, not to mention my education courses in college, had prepared me for managing or using iPods with my students. What in the heck was I supposed to do with these things? Weren’t they just for listening to music and playing the occasional game? What was I supposed to do if a student walked out with one? For that matter, what was stopping them from coming in after hours and wheeling out the entire cart? I was besieged by thoughts of mass educational failure, followed by the inevitable termination of my teaching position, and I counted myself as very unlucky indeed to be chosen for such an “honor.”

I eventually overcame my terror and created a system where each student was assigned an iPod by his or her seat in the classroom. Students and parents signed a waiver at the beginning of the school year that had them acknowledge that they would be responsible for half of the iPod’s cost if theirs was to go missing or become damaged beyond normal wear and tear. Each desk was furnished with an iPod “parking space,” which was simply a laminated piece of paper that had the outline of an iPod that included the iPod number assigned to that desk and the rules for using the iPods; when the iPods were not in use, students were to turn them face-down in their parking space. Students were to pick up their assigned iPods from the cart when first entering the classroom and return them during clean-up time, about three minutes prior to the bell ringing. Because I was teaching five separate sections of tenth and eleventh graders throughout the day, this system made management of the devices easy and also prevented students from simply playing with their iPods when instruction was occurring.

My first foray into using the iPods was very simplistic, but it eventually grew into an effective research project. By simply using the Safari application, I had students look up various facts about our next author and answer questions on a worksheet. This first project turned out to be a little too basic (and a little too much like looking up facts in a textbook), so we added another element to our next project. When we were beginning our unit on Zora Neale Hurston, I created a modified webquest by simply looking up informative websites and saving the links to my PortaPortal website. I then created a shortcut on the iPods to my PortaPortal site. Students were placed into groups and assigned the job of creating “Farcebook” profile pages that had to include posts, biographical information, and friends that would have been included if Zora Neale Hurston had had a social networking site like Facebook. Different variations of this project became a regular event in my classroom because my students felt like they weren’t doing “real research” because of the format of the final product, and they were much more amenable to finding the information using the iPods than they had been when doing a similar project using printed materials.

After that initial success, I began to investigate more specialized apps. I soon found that some simple (and free!) games from the App Store could be used as quick and efficient bell ringers (or warm-ups). Right before our standardized tests, my remediation students began using Miss Spell’s Class for the first five minutes of class every other day to review commonly misspelled words. Students would record their scores on index cards that I would collect for participation credit at the end of class. We would also often start class with Chicktionary, a game that requires letters to be rearranged to spell different words; I would ask students to write down one word from their game that they weren’t familiar with and then use their dictionary app to find the definition. Depending on the amount of time we had in class, I could extend this activity so that students had to use that word in a sentence or quiz a partner on the meaning of the word. We also made use of the Grammar Up app as a way of reviewing concepts prior to an assessment.

For my more advanced students, I started a class blog that allowed us to create “silent discussions” where students could use their iPods to respond to discussion questions. I would post a question on the site before class began, and students would respond in class by commenting on the post and then responding to posts from their classmates. I molded this activity in several different ways, including having students use certain sentence structures in their comments (i.e. you must use a compound sentence in your post) and also having them post their own questions for the class to “silently” discuss. This activity became a favorite of my students because it allowed the quiet students (who wouldn’t speak at all in regular discussions but often had wonderful ideas) to express themselves, and it was also fun to see just how long a class of twenty-five tenth graders could sit in a room together and be verbally silent while they were interacting with each other on their devices.

I also utilized the iPods as an easy way to differentiate instruction. My eleventh grade remediation class had students with who received special education assistance as well as students who were just shy of cutting it in the regular level course. Because of this wide array of ability levels, it was often difficult to deal with behavior management, as students would either be bored because instruction was too slow for them or begin acting out as a mask for not grasping the concepts as quickly as the others. By putting an audio copy of the books that we were reading in class on each iPod and creating reading guides that highlighted concepts that we had discussed as a class, students could work at their own pace while I circulated throughout the room and provided assistance to individuals. The reading guides eventually turned into an Easter egg hunt of sorts, with questions such as “After reading Chapter 2, look back at page 5 and copy the example of personification used there.”

In addition to the techniques I described in detail above, I implemented the iPods in a myriad other ways. Google Docs helped me to create simple multiple choice (and even short answer) assessments that could be completed on the iPods; these gave me an instant picture of how students were doing with concepts that we were discussing in class. iBooks’ PDF feature allowed me to upload copies of my PowerPoint presentations so students who were absent could come in and copy notes quickly. The pre-loaded camera app allowed my students to take pictures and videos of group projects. The QR Code reader allowed me to create scavenger hunts where students would scan the codes, be sent to sites or videos, and answer questions for a project. The best part was, I was only on the tip of the iceberg; I can’t even begin to imagine what these devices could do in other disciplines and grade levels.

Now, with all this said, I am not saying that the iPod Touch is the final word in student engagement; in fact, by the time that this article is read, this piece of technology may be completely outdated. iPads, Android devices, and other devices have just as much potential; I have just spoken from my work with the technology that was made available to me. The point that should be drawn from my experience is that as educators, we must also be innovators; we can’t stick to the same classroom strategies and expect that engagement will come naturally. The classroom must morph and change with the rest of the world.

If a reader is looking for a place to start with technology in the classroom, I hope that this article has provided some useful tips as well as a little inspiration. However, I am also hopeful that this article becomes outdated quickly as teachers continue to develop fresh approaches. Using the media that students are already comfortable with to engage those young minds in the important work of the classroom just makes sense.

Challenges in Education in Today’s Society – Globalization and Changes in Education

Recent investigations in the study of demographic trends at global level are currently making light on a very controversial aspect, although ignored by global institutions, like O.N.U., U.N.D.P., G 20, same by organizations with attributions in the educational field (as UNESCO, Youth International Authorities and other). The so-called “demographic winter” phenomenon, which reveals the dramatic consequences of the “modern” life, marked by familial and moral decline, by miscarriage, vulgarization and the homosexuality “normalization”, by the poisoning influence of the majority of mass-media and the “Hollywood culture” are inoculating egocentrism, frivolity and irresponsibility. Considering this demographic trend offers a new dimension to the way in which abundance and resource of the world are distributed and also gives a new vision on elementary educational issues.

The globalization of education is reflecting itself in the extension and unification of educational practices, used by all those public or private entities, involved as active social educators. Over time, the public education systems in developed or emerging countries, which promote formal education, are illustrating with consistency the practice of a classical education system. In the field of non-formal education there are used more innovating and diverse methods of education, but unfortunately few of this are oriented upon individual behaviour reshaping in the global context, and they are looking only to proliferate consumerist habits, by preparing youngsters for a successful professional career start. The presence of NGO’s with international coverage and professional training companies has fixed the currently understood “development in education” in comfortable limits. This makes room for a reshape of educational fundamentals and, more obvious, for the ultimate purpose of learning.

Most people think that education should equip them with the proper exploitation instruments so that they can forever trample over the masses. Still other thinks that education should furnish them with noble ends rather than means to an end. The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may be the man gifted with reason, but with no morals.

Socially speacking, the technological revolution, the broaden access to information and the modern lifestyle facilities have made possible the appearance of an irreversible phenomenon in the conflict between generations. In our present times, the children, “sons of globalization” have access to multiple sources of information, with the internet being most of the time an instrument of self-education. The balance is leaning in the favour of the power of informed youth, who become “the teachers”, explaining the new world order to the eldest. This theory takes into consideration the acceleration of technology and the way of our lifestyle, but, beyond its observational character, it does not bring up the discussion on the relevance of educational systems, visible outmoded, which attempts to destroy the moral and statutory principles. The wisdom is transmitted from the old generation to the youth, and not backward.

Therefore we are raising the question regarding the way organisms responsible for educational issues should reconsider the basic fundamentals of this basic activity, which clearly has guided the evolution of our world so far. It isn’t enough for organizations like U.N.E.S.C.O or U.N.D.P. to confront the absence of primary education and the discrimination regarding access to education in underdeveloped countries, to avoid resettling the educational needs inside an inappropriate system. It is necessary to deal with these aspects in proper time, because we consider education the key-element which can slow down the process of planet and people self destruction.

The proposal regarding fundamentals reshaping and reviewing the individual education, approached in all stages and cycles of life, starts with the assumption that “Man has to be educated to act responsible towards the environment and civilization, and not interfere in the harmony and balanced world development with his behaviour”. This observation, not exactly recent, triggered a chain of initiatives in the educational system in countries like France, Italy, Germany, including Romania, but I consider that implementing a discipline of Civic Education, in the gymnasium module is not enough, neither convincing.

We feel that the new fundamentals and principals of education, which must be known, understood and applied by every teacher, through all the range of educational processes in the long life learning of individuals, and also in the non formal educational process, whereat people have access during existence are:

1. Self-consciousness – is essential because it allows every individual to find his role in society, to know his weak points and to develop them according to his unique talents genetically inherited. A person aware of his/her self can easily act in choosing the occupation or the carrier to practice that he or she will be able to direct his energies to and recognize the real problems that the world and society faces. Consciousness-based education, introduced in 1971 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, is unique in its ability to effectively develop the total brain potential of every student.

2. Stimulating creativity – this special quality is reflected in the mental and social process of generating new ideas, concepts, associations, and permits individual adaptation to unpredictable contexts and situations. There are simple techniques, associated to lateral thinking that can promote this capacity, for example: improvisation, fiction as imaginary product, (Randomness, Improvisation, P.S.).

3. Communication – in the actual forms and methods used as learning practices, communication is not capitalized at being the supreme value, because mostly individual activity it’s encouraged, which promotes inappropriate values like egoism, indifference, self-interest. Without communicating problems and discussing difficult situations, there is no way to claim solving the issues in optimal parameters of time, quality and accuracy. The man can not act in terms of social responsibility, as a “macro attitude”, which I consider as being shallowly approached, especially in the economical environment.

4. Promoting a responsible role in society – education must train one for quick, resolute and effective thinking. To think incisively and to think for one’s self is very difficult. We are prone to let our mental life become invaded by legions of half truths, prejudices, and propaganda. At this point, I often wonder whether or not education is fulfilling its purpose. A great majority of the so-called educated people do not think logically and scientifically. Even the press, the classroom, the platform, and the pulpit in many instances do not give us objective and unbiased truths. To save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction. This is the way in which he or she could develop and exercise an active role in society.

5. Changing opening – in order to be able to intervene in the actual course of the life circle, accepting and promoting the changes is considered a healthy habit, which stimulates the flexibility and the disruption of existing corporately stereotypes, which are heading humanity to destruction, because of the ignorance or simply because of unknown problems that Terra is facing. From this perspective, the change tackling implies a real transformation at psychological level and of human behaviour, therefore to satisfy those priorities needed to be handled immediately. Here we refer to: the necessity of a re-conversion of world economy from a military economy to civil one, immediate solutions for energetic and environmental problems, as well as for the underdevelopment and poverty aspects propagated into the world.

6. Global vision upon world – the actual educational system, as a whole, is constituted by a sum of operations (method -> evaluation -> communication), whose final objective must reflect a pragmatic and global view on the world. At present, the youth is informed regarding global problems through sources like mass media, not making possible a healthy analysis, not making possible a debate and a thoroughness facilitation that could lead to the understanding and building-up personal opinions regarding aspects like underdevelopment, global economical relations, international monetary system, etc.

7. The ability of solving problems – solving problems is the easiest way to re-create conditions and actions in an artificial manner, experience which allows pupils and students to deal with in a constructive way and to develop solutions for different problems. Learning systems which are basically constructed like this are superior because it helps individuals to recognise and adapt to specific economic, social, psychological, spiritual context and to detect real problems in any form, associating optimal alternatives of decision. For example, simulating a complex economical context for a start-up enterprise leads to the stimulation of individual creativeness and decision-making abilities.

8. Multidisciplinary teams – to permit the reshaping and the restructuring of scholar curricular in the needed form in order to develop these abilities and capacities, we are suggesting even some changes in the study of discipline, considering the logical and contextual relations between them, providing an understanding of all existing correlations at a certain point. For example, Public Finances should be studied in the International Monetary System context and not separately. At the same time this characteristic involves, according to those said before, the start point of collaborations between students coming from different specialization, in order to accomplish complex projects with a multidisciplinary approach. In this case, the elaboration of a business plan would unite students from different specializations in economical science discipline (services, marketing, management) and students from engineering, agriculture and others profile Universities.

In recent years, there have been promoters that recognise the importance of remodelling and updating the learning systems and they have introduced some of this principals through various pedagogic and psychology methods and ideas, which became guide-lines in Universities educational activities from regions around the world. A recent example at this point is the study made by Clay Shirky, author of “Here Comes Everybody”, in which he proposed an innovating learning model, named Open Model of Education. In the Closed Model of Education or Classical System, education is limited because the ideas that a school or district can consider can come from only a limited number of sources, usually teachers, administrators, and consultants. A great deal of thought must be put into the consideration of ideas because the time and cost of failure are so high. Time spent with meetings, staff training, and materials, has a cost. This means the filter for ideas is very high. Only those ideas that seem to have the most benefit will be implemented, though there is no way to know in advance that one of the ideas picked will bring the desired benefit, and one of the ideas left on the table could be the most effective and beneficial.

It is true that by putting into practice an educational system based on the same universal fundamentals it essentially means stimulating globalization through its universal optic itself. Although the manner in which this model contributes to the globalization phenomenon is clear, still we must consider the fact that the final purpose of education is no other then confronting globalization’s effects and influences, as well as the global negative impact upon environment and, ultimately, upon the way people live everywhere. Education will allow us to know the actual estate of the world, with all its pluses and minuses, and also will increase the awareness of the impact of every individual upon the world and upon the next generations. In other words, we consider politics, economy or administrative sciences weapons of less importance in the process of global issues eradication, compared to education, as a social science.

To conclude, I would like to specify the way these ideas were generated and which were their fundamentals. This actual study is not a result a thorough research activity, neither a genius idea. I am myself a “product” of a classic, formal educational system, but also had some benefits form the non-formal educational system by involving myself in a volunteer organization that developed soft skills and hard skills both. I consider that these educational practices are not adapted enough to the global context that we are facing everyday, and that specialized literature is exposing, bringing up to light its pronounced effects of human existence on Terra. I am a person that does not hold sufficient information and power to be a voice and to be able to get involved in a sustainable and constant development of society, whose values are not profit, nepotism, indifference towards future generations, but responsibility to create and offer equal chances. I am an ambassador of a civilization which is plunging headfirst, shy daring to change the dissonant order and murderously world.

Education Threatens Ignorance and Terrorists

The news today that 14 boys were shot by Islamists on their way to school in an African Country left me stunned. This follows the shooting of a girl in Pakistan a year ago for seeking education. The facts that education is such a threat to terrorists of this type warrant an understanding of their cause. It has to do with the power they achieve by the ignorance they protect and of which they are a part.

Many are brain washed from birth to believe only what is heard from their leaders. This is a recipe for disaster as they are brain-washed into thinking beyond reason. They lose the means to use logic while their instincts to question authorities that are dependent on their actions for control is gone.

It is not unique to these groups; however, as even in Western societies religions dominate thinking and will overturn knowledge if and when allowed to do so. Evolution is a case in point as many religious folk won’t accept it and prefer to think of creation as having taken place in six days. The problem remains unresolved as they are so protected by their church groups that no amount of information from others to the contrary will get in.

Even the most educated leaders tend to stick to religious guide-lines when making laws for their nations. The reasoning behind it is to make sure that they stay in favour of those who are so out of focus that they want their gods’ laws in preference to logic.

While ever ignorance remains the terrorism will continue. This is stale-mate that is unresolvable as it was meant to be because the super-conflict that is closing in on all of us will bring this world to an end as we know it. That is the plan of the real God, the Spirit of the Universe.

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